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history of California


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Born at North Salem, New York, September 5, 1825; died
at Millbrae, Cal., January 3, 19 10; came to California in
1849 and went into business in Sacramento. He soon opened
a bank there under the firm name of D. 0. Mills and Com-
pany, still in existence as the National Bank of D. O. Mills
and Company. After retiring from the Bank of California
in 1877 he removed to New York, though retaining his large
interests in California.

History of California




Volume Five

New York

The Century History Company

54 & 56 Dey Street

Printed by

John C. Rankin Company


The Century History Company

Copyright By

The Century History Company

all rights reserved

Publication Office

54 & 56 Dey Street, New York, N. Y.

U. S. A.



THE special articles in this volume will give
some idea of what California is, what her
citizens have done, and what they may
reasonably be expected to do to increase the
sum of human knowledge and to promote the welfare
and happiness of the people.

It is hard to understand Spain's long neglect of
California after the voyages of Ulloa, Cabrillo, and
Vizcaino, after Francis Drake sailed his Golden Hinde
up the coast and proclaimed the sovereignty of Queen
Elizabeth, leaving with the Indians a portrait of their
queen in the form of a sixpence nailed to a post at
Point Reyes. It was not until the advent of the
Russians on the northern coast nearly two hundred
years later, combined with the attitude of the English
cabinet, that Spain awoke to the necessity of protecting
her rights. And even in this Spain's action was feeble
and lacking in vigor; so much so that navigators of
other nations marveled that she could maintain herself
in California with so small an armed force. As
Gessler raised his hat on a pole for all to do it reverence,
so Spain planted in California the royal standard of
Castile and Leon, as if she expected the sight of it to
overaw all who contemplated invasion or insult.

Spanish rule in California came to an end in 1821 on
the establishment of the Mexican republic, and the
Mexican title was extinguished in 1848 by the Treaty
of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Seventy years ago barefooted
friars were pushing from mission to mission, converting
the heathen, while the ranchero prince, with his cattle
on a thousand hills, entertained all comers with
magnificent hospitality. The exports of California


consisted of a few cargoes of hides and a little grain.
Today what a change! The annual products of the
orchards and vineyards alone amount to #100,000,000,
while another hundred million dollars is taken from
the earth in metals and in mineral oils. The country
that was said by early travelers to be unfit for cultiva-
tion was for many years the largest exporter of wheat
of any state in the union.

Along with the development of material wealth is
the progress of education and the cultivation of the arts
and sciences. And what of the Californian! In him
is concentered the romance and chivalry of Spain, the
glory of England, the energy and valor of the empire
builders; he dwells in the Terrestrial Paradise,* and
the fruits and flowers of the earth are his.

"He made him ride on the high places of the earth,

That he might eat the increase of the fields;

And he made him suck honey out of the rock,

And oil out of the flinty rock;

Butter of kine, and milk of sheep,

With fat of lambs,

And rams of the breed of Bashan, and goats,

With the fat of kidneys of wheat;

And thou didst drink the pure blood of the grape."

San Francisco, May, 1914.

*stf? ' UU^JL^

*When Columbus sailed on his fourth voyage, in which he hoped to pass through
what we now know as the Isthmus of Panama, and sail northwestward, he wrote
to his king and queen that thus he should come as near as men could come to "the
Terrestrial Paradise." (Edward Everett Hale in Atlantic Monthly for February,
1864, cf. also, Las Sergas de Esplandian, Seville, 1510.)


Charles E. Bundschu ("Viticulture in California")
is a wine merchant; was born in San Francisco in 1878;
educated in the public schools, taking a two years special
course in Viticulture at the University of California, class
of 1901, and is at present serving as State Viticultural

William Wallace Campbell ("A Brief History of
Astronomy in California") is Director of the Lick Obser-
vatory, University of California, and Astronomer in charge
of the Spectroscopic Department. Professor Campbell
was born on a farm in Hancock County, Ohio, in 1862, and
received his education in the public schools and the Univer-
sity of Michigan, receiving the degree of B. S.; has honorary
degrees, M. S. University of Michigan, Sc. D. University
of Western Pennsylvania, LL. D. University of Wisconsin;
has organized and taken charge of expeditions for scientific
observation to Santiago, Chile; Jeur, India; Thomaston,
Georgia; Alhambra, Spain; Flint Island, Pacific Ocean; and
to Russia; is member of many scientific societies in Europe
and America and has received a number of gold medals for
scientific work; is author of text book on Elements of Prac-
tical Astronomy, of a volume on Stellar Motions, and many
papers published in scientific journals.

Albert E. Chandler ("Irrigation in California") is an
Irrigation Engineer, Water-Right Specialist, and Assistant
Professor of Irrigation, University of California. He was
born in San Francisco in 1872; educated in the public
schools, University of California, College of Civil Engineer-
ing, 1896. Has served in U. S. Geological Survey; as State
Engineer of Nevada; U. S. Reclamation Service, and is the
author of several technical works and articles.

Alice Eastwood ("Some General Features of the
California Flora") is Botanist of the California Academy of
Sciences. She was born in Toronto, Canada, in 1859, and
was graduated at the East Denver High School, and is
author of a number of books and papers on Botany.


Zoeth Skinner Eldredge ("Land Titles in California,"
"George Davidson and the Coast and Geodetic Survey,"
"Banking in California," "San Francisco, the Earthquake
and Fire of 1906") is a retired banker. He was born in
Buffalo, New York, in 1846, and came to California in 1868.
He was weigher and acting cashier, U. S. Mint at Carson
City, Nevada, 1869-73; Secretary and Manager Virginia
Savings Bank, 1879; Cashier Pacific Bank, San Francisco,
1883; National Bank Examiner, 1893-1900; California
State Bank Commissioner, 1904-05; President National
Bank of the Pacific, San Francisco, 1905-09; is author of
"The March of Portola," 1909, "The Beginnings of
San Francisco," 191 2, and is editor of this History of

John M. Elliott ("The City of Los Angeles") is one of
the best known bankers in California and is and has been
for the past thirty years president of the First National Bank
of Los Angeles. He was born in Pendleton, South Carolina,
in 1844; was educated at the Chatham Academy, Savannah,
Georgia, and the Georgia Military Institute, leaving the
latter to enlist in the confederate army, serving for two and
a half years as a private, to the close of the war. He has
served on the Los Angeles Board of Education and for five
years, 1902-1907, on the Los Angeles City Water Board.

George Hamlin Fitch ("California Books and Authors")
is a newspaper man, and since 1880 has been Night Editor
and Literary Editor of the San Francisco Chronicle. He was
born in Lancaster, New York, in 1852; was educated in the
public schools of San Francisco, Fort Edward Institute, New
York, and Cornell University, class of 1875; from 1878 to 1879
was Assistant City Editor of New York Tribune. Mr. Fitch
is the author of "Comfort Found in Good Old Books,"
"Modern English Books of Power," "The Critic in the
Orient" and "The Critic in the Occident."


Harry Foot Hodges ("The Panama Canal") is Colonel,
Corps of Engineers, U. S. A., Member and Assistant Chief
Engineer Isthmian Canal Commission; was born in Massa-
chusetts in i860; graduated at West Point Military Academy,
1881, number four in his class; second lieutenant of engineers,
1881; first lieutenant, 1883; captain, 1893; lieutenant
colonel U. S. V. engineers, 1898; colonel, 1899; mustered
out of volunteers, January 25, 1899; major, engineers, 1901;
lieutenant-colonel, 1907; colonel, 191 1.

Alfred L. Kroeber ("The Indians of California") is
Associate Professor of Anthropology, University of Cali-
fornia; was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, 1876; graduated
Columbia College, class of 1896; degrees, A. B., A. M., Ph.
D., and has written a large number of papers on Anthro-
pology and related subjects.

Robert Newton Lynch ("Development of California")
is vice-president and manager of the California Develop-
ment Board and also vice-president and manager of the
San Francisco Chamber of Commerce. He was born in
Sharpeville, Pennsylvania, in 1875; educated for the law
and in theology in State Normal School, Chico, California,
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, and in
Regents Park College, London University, class of 1902.
Has served as Baptist Minister and secretary of various
commerical bodies; Commissioner for California to Turin
International Exposition, Turin, Italy, 191 1, and to
Ghent International Exposition, Ghent, Belgium, 191 3.

Alexander G. McAdie ("The Climate of California")
occupies the Abbott Lawrence Rotch chair of Meteorology,
Harvard University, and is Director of Blue Hill Obser-
vatory, Massachusetts; he was born in New York in 1863,
and was educated at the College of the City of New York
and Harvard University; was professor of Meteorology,
United States Weather Bureau, and for some fifteen years
stationed at San Francisco. His literary work includes


"Climatology of California," "Protection from Frost,"
"The Ephebic Oath," "Clouds and Fogs of San Francisco,"
and other books.

Loye Holmes Miller ("The Fauna of California") is
the head of the Department of Biology of the State Normal
School, Los Angeles, and Associate Professor of Comparative
Anatomy, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Los Angeles.
He was born in Minden, Louisiana, in 1874; graduated
University of California, holding the degrees of B. S., M. S.,
and Ph. D.; has served as instructor and associate professor
in Oahu College, Honolulu, in University of California; as
naturalist and collector on various scientific expeditions,
and has published a large number of works and papers on
the fauna and Paleontology of California.

Edmond O'Neill ("The Development of the Petroleum
Industry in California") is Professor of Chemistry, Univer-
sity of California; was born in Nashville, Tennessee, 1858;
educated in San Francisco public schools, University of
California, class of 1879, Strassburg, Germany; Paris,
France; and is consulting chemist and adviser for a number
of California cities in regard to water, sewage, gas, and other
utilities; is a member and officer of a number of scientific
societies and author of many articles of technical nature
published in chemical journals.

Honorable George C. Pardee ("Conservation in
California") was born in San Francisco, 1857; educated j
in public schools and City College of San Francisco; graduated |
University of California, Ph. B., 1879; graduated University I
of Leipzig, M. D., 1885; member Oakland Board of Health,
1889-91; Oakland City Council, 1891-93; Mayor of Oakland,
1983-95; Regent of University of California, 1889-1903;
Governor of California, 1903-07; member National Conser-
vation Commission, 1907-08; President two terms National
Irrigation Congress; Director for California of National


Conservation Congress and National River and Harbors
Congress; Chairman California Conservation Commission
since 191 1.

Bruce Porter ("Art and Architecture") is a well known
artist of San Francisco, born there in 1865. He received
his education in the public schools and his art training in
London and Paris and in Italy.

G. W. Shaw ("The Agronomics of California") is an
authority on agricultural chemistry and soil selection. He
is a graduate of Dartmouth, class of 1887, and holds that
college's degrees of A. B., A. M., and Ph. D. Has been
professor of chemistry, physics, agricultural technology,
etc., at Whitman College, Washington, Pacific University,
Oregon, Oregon State Agricultural College, Corvallis,
University of California, and head of California's Agronomy
department, besides conducting soil investigations for U. S.
Department of Agriculture and Colorado Sugar Manufac-
turing Company. He is author of many papers and bulletins
on agricultural subjects.

James Perrin Smith ("Outline of the Geology of Cali-
fornia") is Professor of Paleontology in Leland Stanford,
Jr., University; was born in Cokesburg, South Carolina, 1864;
A. B. in classical course, WofTord College, South Carolina,
1884; A. M. Vanderbilt University, Tennessee, 1886; Ph. D.
Gottingen, Germany, 1892; was Assistant Geologist, Geo-
logical Survey of Arkansas, 1888-1890; Geologist, U. S.
Geological Survey, 1896; Professor of Paleontology at Stan-
ford since 1892; has published numerous scientific articles
in various journals.

Crittenden Thornton ("History of the Laws of Cali-
fornia") is a lawyer of high standing in San Francisco. He
was born in Eutaw, Greene county, Alabama, in 1849; was
educated at the City College of San Francisco; has practiced
his profession in Nevada and for the past thirty years in


Orson F. Whitney ("The Mormons in the History of
California") known in Utah as Bishop Whitney, was born
in Salt Lake City in 1855; son of a pioneer of 1847; was
educated in the public schools and in the University of
Deseret, now University of Utah; has been newspaper
reporter and editor, Chancellor of University of Deseret,
1886-90; Professor of Theology and English, Brigham Young
College, 1896-97; Assistant Church Historian, lecturer,
preacher, etc.; member of City Council; City Treasurer;
Chief Clerk of House of Representatives, Utah Legislature;
member of Constitutional Convention; State Senator; has
published "Life of Heber C. Kimball," "History of Utah,"
and other works.

Edward James Wickson ("The California Fruit In-
dustry") is Professor of Horticulture in the University of
California. He was born in Rochester, New York, in 1848;
was graduated at Hamilton College, 1869, with degree A. B.;
A. M., 1872; has been connected with the Department of
Agriculture of University of California since 1891 ; was one of
the organizers of the State Horticultural Society and is its sec-
retary; is the author of "California Fruits and How to Grow
Them," "The California Vegetables in Garden and Field."

Charles G. Yale ("Mining in California") is Statistician,
U. S. Geological Survey. He was born in Jacksonville,
Florida, in 1847; was educated in the public schools of San
Francisco and the City College, graduating in the class of
1870; studied chemistry, assaying, etc., under Professor
Thomas Price; has had field experience as assayer, miner,
and millman; was for many years mining statistician, U. S.
Mint at San Francisco, and the California State Mining
Bureau; for twenty years editor Mining and Scientific Press
of San Francisco, mining editor of other San Francisco
papers, correspondent of Engineering and Mining Journal
of New York, and a large contributor to U. S. Mint reports,
State Mining reports, census reports, and to various mining
and other publications, and is today perhaps the best
authority in California on mining matters.



Bundschu (Charles E.)

Viticulture in California 603

Campbell (William Wallace)

A Brief History of Astronomy in California 231

Chandler (Albert E.)

Irrigation in California 301

Eastwood (Alice)

Some General Features of the Californian Flora 39

Eldredge (Zoeth Skinner)

Land Titles in California 141

George Davidson and the Coast and Geodetic Survey 569

Banking in California 423

San Francisco: The Earthquake and Fire of 1906 505

Elliott (John M.)

The City of Los Angeles 557

Fitch (George Hamlin)

California Books and Authors 487

Hodges (Harry Foot)

The Panama Canal 525

Kroeber (Alfred L.)

The Indians of California 119

Lynch (Robert Newton)

The Development of California 587

McAdie (Alexander)

The Climate of California 79

Miller (Loye Holmes)

The Fauna of California 53

O'Neill (Edmond)

The Development of the Petroleum Industry in California 345

Pardee (George C.)

Conservation in California 363

Porter (Bruce)

Art and Architecture in California 461

Shaw (G. W.)

The Agronomics of California 275

Smith (James Perrin)

Outline of the Geology of California 3

Thornton (Crittenden)

History of the Laws of California 397

Whitney (Orson F.)

The Mormons in the History of California 163

Wickson (Edward James)

The California Fruit Industry 321

Yale (Charles G.)

California's Mining History 199


Darius Ogden Mills Frontispiece

Disenoof San Antonio Rancho Facing page 156

Brigham Young " " 164

Philip St. George Cooke " " 168

Gull Monument " " 178

Henry W. Bigler ■ " 182

Los Angeles Chapel " " 196

Joseph W. Winans " " 432

Plate 1. The Adopted Plan of the Panama Canal " " 536

Plate 2. The Gatun Dam " " 542

Plate 3. The Gatun Locks " ■ 544

Plate 4. Cross-section of Lock Chamber " " 546

George Davidson u " 568


CALIFORNIANS may well be proud of the
geologists that have contributed to science
in this field, for there are some great names
among them, names as highly honored in the
scientific centres of Europe as in America.


The pioneer work was done by the geologists of the
Pacific Railroad survey in the early fifties, William P.
Blake, Jules Marcou and Thomas Antisell. Blake was
a keen-sighted, practical geologist whose work still
stands as a model for accuracy. Marcou was a brilliant
but hasty and erratic generalize^ who dared to make a
geologic map of the state at a time when the geology
had not yet been outlined. Antisell was a patient and
plodding student who laid the framework of our
knowledge of the geology of the Coast ranges. Associ-
ated with them, although he was never in California,
was T. A. Conrad, the greatest authority on the
Tertiary paleontology of America.

Immediately after them, and still among the pioneers,
came John B. Trask, our first state geologist, whose
name we are still proud to commemorate in the many
species named after him.

Then came the golden age in the great geological
survey conducted by J. D. Whitney and William M.
Gabb, in the sixties. We are still proud that the great-
est geologist of his time in America should have honored
California by making it the field of his scientific studies
during this decade. Gabb, too, was a genius of the
first rank, and would have become one of the foremost
among American men of science had he not been cut


off by premature death. With this survey, too, were
associated Clarence King, W. H. Brewer, and Leo
Lesquereux, famous in other lines of activity. It is
peculiarly fortunate that in a new and difficult region,
men of such high attainments ahould have laid the

After this period came genial Professor Joseph Le
Conte, whose deep philosophy and charming simple
expression of it, and whose lovable personality brought
additional glory to California.

A marked increase in scientific activity came in the
eighties and early nineties, through the investigations
of the United States Geological survey, represented by
George F. Becker, Joseph S. Diller, Waldemar Lindgren,
F. H. Knowlton, and Henry W. Turner, whose mas-
terly delineations of the intricate geology of the Sierra
Nevada, and especially of the gold belt, have won the
admiration of the scientific world. Associated with
them in deciphering the geology of the Coast ranges
was William H. Dall, the world's greatest conchologist,
who has given so liberally of his stores of learning in
unraveling our Tertiary paleontology and making
known the wealth of mollusks in our living fauna.

The modern era begins in the opening of the nineties
with the coming of Andren C. Lawson and John C.
Branner to the state. They, with their associates, have
begun the superstructure, and have made great steps
toward deciphering the physical history of California.

No history of the geology of California would be
complete without the name of Harold W. Fairbanks,
who is inseparably connected with the study of physi-
cal geography in our region. John C. Merriam's won-


derful discoveries of fossil mammals, and his masterly
philosophic discussions of the extinct animals that
swam in our seas and roamed over our lands, have
become world famous. And Ralph Arnold has added
a new chapter to our history in his careful stratigraphic
and paleontologic studies that have made our Tertiary
and Quaternary faunas known everywhere.

There are few regions in the world where the records
of geologic history are more complete than in California,
for every major division is represented by marine sedi-
ments, and many of them also by continental deposits.
This is made possible by the geographic position
between two ancient and persistent bodies of water, the
Pacific ocean, and the Great Basin sea, which alter-
nately encroached on what is now California, each one
supplying that part of the record which the other
omitted. The Pacific ocean still washes the western
shore of California, now encroaching, now retreating;
but the Great Basin sea is long since dead, and would
be buried, were it not for the later uplifts that rear its
old sediments in the mountain ranges of the desert

Great Basin Sea. The older portion of the geologic
record, from the Cambrian to the top of the Middle
Jurassic, has been preserved chiefly in the sediments
of the Great Basin sea, while during those ages that
part of California which was afterward covered by the
Pacific ocean was either above water, or has had its
sediments so much metamorphosed that their age is
not positively determinable.

The Great Basin Sea of Paleozoic and early Mesozoic
time covered approximately the area of the Great


Basin of the present age, sometimes more, and some-
times less, dwindling away gradually from the noble
expanse of the Carboniferous Sea to the shrunken
remnant in early Mesozoic time. This basin at all
times was directly connected with the Pacific ocean, by
a broad passage to the northwest; and during a part
of the Paleozoic, especially during the period of the
Coal Measures, it was joined to the Mississippian Sea.
At all other times it was exclusively western, and the
marine Triassic and Jurassic history of the United
States is its peculiar property. It has played very
much the same part in the geologic history of North
America as the ancient Mediterranean or Tethys did
in the history of Europe, though on a much smaller
scale, since it was epicontinental, and not intercon-
tinental. The Cambrian, Silurian, and Devonian
sediments of California are mere fragments of little
area, representing only a small part of the entire time
of those ages. The Carboniferous, however, is fairly
complete, all three major divisions being fully repre-
sented by marine faunas. The Triassic period is
well represented, the Upper Triassic of California
being the standard for this epoch in America, and
comparing very favorably with the rest of the world in
the richness of its faunas, and the completeness of the
record. The Jurassic section of the Great Basin sea
is the most complete in the United States, having
portions of each stage, but it is fragmentary, the faunas
being poorly preserved and scanty. It is not com-
parable with the Jurassic record of Alaska and British
Columbia, and nowhere approaching that of South


America. With this epoch the marine column of the
Great Basin ends abruptly, as the sea was obliterated
at the beginning of the Cordilleran revolution.

Online LibraryZoeth Skinner EldredgeHistory of California (Volume 5) → online text (page 1 of 41)